Women’s day calendar. The history of the holiday March 8: the legends and the reality

Today, many believe the 8th of March-feminist, but actually in the NINETEENTH century, feminism was considered a bourgeois phenomenon. Moreover, to establish the day of women’s struggle for their voting rights socialists decided just to spite feminists

Stanislav Calic – 08.03.19 607000

Traditionally, the day 8 March is associated with the events of 1857, when a resident of new York- workers of the textile industry and factories making clothes — marched through the streets with the “March of empty pots”. Women protested against poor working conditions and meager wages.

Skeptics argue that this is a smoothed version of events, launched into circulation by Soviet historians, and in fact the streets are not defiled with women textile seamstresses and a new York prostitute. They are required to pay wages to the sailors, who owed them for services a tidy sum. The latter option is better aligned with empty pots — ladies demonstrated that they have nothing to eat. But it really is difficult to understand. The fact that this March somehow not informed no then newspaper.

Was he at all? The question is not idle. For example, the French magazine La Revue d’en face claims that was not. Back in 1982 this edition published in No. 12 detailed 13-page article under the eloquent title “the Myth of the origin of International women’s day”. The authors found that the story of the “March of empty pots” was simply composed by the French Communist newspaper L’humanité in 1955.

The date it was not

It is logical to assume that the reference day of March 8 to the women’s struggle for their rights is rooted in 1894. Talking about the demonstration in Paris, on which there were representatives of the oldest profession, demanding from the authorities to allow them to create their own Union.

Why they chose 8 March to Thursday? Probably because to go to city hall on Sunday when it’s empty, has no meaning. Besides, the protestors themselves Sunday — busy day. Date in this case was completely accidental.

In the following, 1895, the women staged a demonstration on March 8 by analogy with the previous year. Although this time its participants were not Parisians, and the “night butterflies” of Chicago. March 8, 1896 once again held a mass rally of women in the sex industry — now in new York.

It is logical to assume that the reference day of March 8 to the women’s struggle for their rights is rooted in 1894

Political overtones this day acquired in 1908, when the aspirations of street women was suddenly supported by American social Democrats. They took to the streets of new York more than 15 thousand women of different professions, including the oldest. The event took place under the slogans of reduction of the duration of the working day, equal conditions of remuneration, and granting women suffrage.

With the name of Clara Zetkin on March 8 bind it is in vain. At the Second international socialist women’s conference held in Copenhagen in 1910 she suggested that “the socialists of all countries” to conduct annual “women’s day, which will primarily serve as a campaign for women’s suffrage”. About the specific date it was not.

Participants of the conference supported this idea. Celebrated in 1911 — March 19, 1912-may 12. And in 1913, generally of a single day is not gone: the women of France and the Russian Empire rallied on March 2, the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Switzerland, the Netherlands — March 9, Germany — March 12.

So Clara Zetkin would be very surprised, after reading numerous publications, attributing to her the authorship date of March 8.

Housewives have not congratulated

In fact, the binding of women’s day on 8 March, took place only in 1921. Participants of the 2nd Communist women’s conference decided to celebrate March 8 international women’s day in commemoration of the participation of workers in mass demonstrations in Petrograd on February 23 (new style, March 8), 1917 — the day the revolution began, which resulted in the autocracy fell and ceased to exist the Russian Empire.

In different periods of Soviet history the emphasis of women’s day changed. For example, the propaganda posters of the 1920-ies was as follows: “March 8 — the day of the emancipation of women”, “8th of March — the day of rebellion of working women against kitchen slavery.”

March 8, as before, was considered to be purely female. Workers walked or held a meeting, discussing their problems. The presence of men was not supposed to. And the attempt to “congratulate” would be at least ridiculous: ladies fighting for their rights, what is there to congratulate?

And even more. Many men strongly disliked “human rights” event on March 8. In the Newspapers sometimes criticized irresponsible husbands, hide the shoes of their pious, so they did not go to a meeting or demonstration.

Politocracy March 8, acquired in 1908, when the aspirations of prostitutes supported the social Democrats. They took to the streets of new York more than 15 thousand women of different professions, including the oldest

The situation changed in 1937, when the authorities decided to use March 8, in the struggle for improvement of work efficiency.

In February from Moscow were sent a Directive: “the Regional committees, territorial committees and the Central Committee of netparty an international Communist women’s day as a mass political campaign under the slogan of further involvement of women in the Soviet Union in socialist construction, the rise of socialist competition and the Stakhanovite movement of workers, intellectuals and farmers, mobilizing them for the successful fulfillment and over-fulfillment of plans for the last years of the second five-year plan”.

And March 8 — an unprecedented event! — the newspaper “Pravda” half of the room devoted to the role of women in Communist construction. In those days any publication in the main newspaper of the party was considered to be a direct guide to action. Now a good form began on this day to promote workers active in public life — for example, to award a diploma of shock-stahanovok. However, Housewives do not participate in the construction of a new life, no one thought to congratulate you on 8 March.

The ranking of the women’s professions

After the Second world war the 8th of March has been enriched with new notes. First, have corrected his name disappeared before the war the word “Communist”. So, in 1949, the Ministry of communications of the USSR issued a series of stamps “on 8 March – international women’s day” with a picture of Soviet women, representing different professions. About the ratings of these professions, obviously, can be judged by the values of brands: the seller in the fabric store — 20 cents, kindergarten teacher — 25 cents, farmer — 50 cents, teacher — 50 cents, the sportswoman-the champion — 1 ruble, the woman-MP — 2 rubles.

Second, March 8, purchased family note. Now it is not just editorials-shock, but also “mothers ‘ day”. And all moms, regardless of success on the job. Circle congratulations greatly expanded. On this day, all family members tried to do something nice: the daughter-the schoolgirl — to get a perfect score, son is a kindergartner to draw a greeting card, the husband — cook soup. Went on sale and the new content of the postcard: “on March 8 — congratulations mom”, “Dear mom for the holiday!”, “Congratulations to our mom!”.

By 1960, the name of the holiday was again revised. Because women already had the vote, the dream of Clara Zetkin came true. In the new version 8 of March — Day of international solidarity of workers of women in the struggle for peace and democracy.

Women’s day has gained popularity in 1966, when March 8 was day. Now men congratulated visits March 7 — not only of soldiers, as before, and all of that. The 8th was presented gifts and flowers to the women in the family, and then usually went to visit — to celebrate with friends or relatives.

Propaganda posters, greeting cards and postage stamps of the USSR dedicated to March 8

In 1969 the authorities of the newly expanded circle congratulations now “officially” included grandparents. The Ministry of communications has issued relevant postcards: “Congratulations to mothers and grandmothers!”, “I congratulate the grandmother with the day of March 8!”

In the next decade, women’s day was universal: from 8 March congratulated all, without exception, the fair sex — classmates, classmates, employees, relatives, friends and acquaintances.

The initial political context of the day of 8 March was finally lost. About it reported is that the newspaper article on the eve of the holiday. They were reminded that it is a day of solidarity with the struggle of women in other continents.

By the way, the UN never recognized on March 8 and no status, it is not provided. It’s all fiction of Soviet propagandists. In fact, the UN General Assembly adopted on December 16, 1977 resolution №A/RES/32/142, inviting “all States to declare, in accordance with their historical and national traditions and customs, any day of the [1978] Day of struggle for women’s rights and international peace.” That is not the 8th of March and any day in the country. And not annually, and only once in 1978.

For every taste

In the 1970s blossomed riotous color gift-Otkrytoe-floral greeting fever.

In early February at the newsstands of “Soyuzpechat” and the post office was coming out greeting cards with a fairly standard reading of “8 March”, “International women’s day!”, “Glory to the Soviet women!” “Congratulations, girls!”.

A postcard with a non-trivial inscription was difficult to find, and the buyer had to accept it. But it was possible to select the language. Postcards in the Russian language the sale is much greater. They were printed in Russia in enormous editions in good printing performance. Range of greeting cards in the Ukrainian language — more modest. The products of the publishing house “Radyans’ka Ukraina” inferior as printing and circulation. For example, the card “March 8” was published 14-15 million copies, and “8 March” — 3-4 million

WITHOUT A POLICY. Ukrainian postcards were usually devoid of ideological overtones: 8 March — holiday of spring. Postcard 1970

But the image you can choose for every taste: for congratulations of his girlfriend (rose bouquet), the boss (the dove of peace with the three studs), distant relatives (willow in the background pattern), younger sister (Leopold the cat with a bouquet), Komsomol activist (women of different continents in national costumes), and so on.

In late February, the media “included” the subject of women. Talked about labour successes of the fair sex. He published essays about the famous milkmaids, seamstresses-machine operator, doctors, teachers, metallurgists. Wrote about the soldiers of labour, mothers-heroines and women elected by the party Congress delegates or deputies of the respective Council.

Your holiday contribution was made and the Central statistical office of the USSR. For example, in 1978, on the eve of March 8, it announced impressive data: over 4,5 thousand Soviet women are doctors of Sciences, more than 97 thousand candidates of Sciences, and the number of women professors and corresponding members and academicians of national and Soviet academies of Sciences exceeded 2.4 thousand More than 4 thousand workers are in charge of industrial enterprises and administrative institutions, and 200 thousand heads of departments, divisions, laboratories.

The pride of

The choice of gift on March 8 depended not only on the taste of the giver. Played a significant role in the ability to “get”. Older women were happy to receive a gift of classic perfume “Red Moscow”, and young girls could appreciate more the original “brave”, “the Awakening” or “Spring flower”.

Men who had been in mission in Moscow, was carried from thence Bulgarian store “Sofia” perfume “Signatyur”, and also the modern catch — thin glass vials of rose oil in hand-painted wooden box. Sometimes travelers were able to buy Polish cosmetics company “Polly” or, at least, the Polish spirits “maybe” (despite the playful name, this perfume is in an hour have lost the scent; however, the magic word “import” gave him a vip ghosting), both of which, if lucky, bought in the store, “Wanda”.

In Soviet times women’s day was a partial replacement of the current Valentine’s Day (then it was unheard of). At least when I wished his wife or the woman

In Kiev before the holiday to buy a nice present was unreal — it had to be taken care of in advance. Usually, seekers of gifts were sent to stores — Department store, Department store “Ukraine”, where the chances to “hit” on something the original was higher.

The first lure is simple: “In the holidays in the Central Department store you can buy gift sets, which are picked based on the tastes and wishes of buyers.” In addition, “the Department store experienced sellers will serve you well, give good advice” and “you will always find the necessary industrial products.” The Department store “Ukraine” modestly confined itself to stating that “in the range Department store is constantly over 25 thousand items of different industrial products”, but proudly stressed: “For achievements in customer service, the staff of the Department awarded the Honorary diploma of the CPSU Central Committee and USSR Council of Ministers”. Oh, then pride!

However, on the eve of March 8, scour the stores men swept everything. In these “hot” days of shortage became even banal ink “Leningrad”, which when applied to the lashes stuck together clumps, and the slightest moisture (snow, rain, uninvited tears) was smeared and tech. If leaking ink immediately rinse with water, inflammation of the eye provided… lipstick, by the way, eve also turned into a terrible deficit.

Floral “broom”

And, of course, women’s day is not complete without flowers. They can be purchased at specialty stores like “Llea” on Khreshchatyk or “Tulip” front of the Opera house. The alternative was the market, and grandmother at the exit of the subway or underground passages.

Floral “standard” was considered on 8 March bouquet of a Mimosa. These yellow flowers are clearly drove in from the South, tightly Packed in the boxes, why the guy was flattened, almost flat, with a shape slightly resembling a miniature brooms. Anyway, the ironic question: “how Much is your broom?” do not hurt sellers…

The demand for flowers the day before and the day of the feast was so large that not everyone was able to buy a bunch. Especially those who woke up at the last second. Initially, the flowers were finished in the shops, and then exhaust the reserves and enterprising ladies. This gave rise to cartoonists to display their talents. One of the drawings depicted a street flower stall with the announcement: “no Flowers”. A young man comes to the window and holds out a pretty flower shop girl. She clasps his hands: “Do the flowers?”

  • See also: the Extortion of money. The history of the famous Kiev bribe

In Soviet times women’s day was a partial replacement of the current Valentine’s Day (then it was unheard of). At least, when he congratulated his wife or beloved woman. Beautiful bouquet, words of love, the gift, the feeling features of the day — so many people remembered the day on March 8.