Balloon neither the motors, nor our usual helm. Of all the technological Arsenal — only burner, sandbags and a special valve at the top of the dome for the etching of thin air. How to control this aircraft?
From the history of Aeronautics
The birth of balloons was the first real incarnation of the age-old dream of mankind about conquering the fifth ocean. In 1306 a French missionary to the bass for the first time described as being in China, I witnessed the flight of a balloon in the accession to the throne of the Emperor of Fo KIEN.
However, the birthplace of Aeronautics is considered the French town of Annonay, where on 5 June 1783, brothers Etienne and Joseph Montgolfier raised to the sky they created a spherical balloon filled with hot air.
Flight of an aircraft weighing about 155 kg and a diameter of 3,5 meters lasted only 10 minutes. During this time he traveled about a kilometer on a 300-meter altitude, which was a remarkable event for its time. Later, balloons in honor of the founders became known as the balloon.
The device balloon
The balloon of the Montgolfier brothers consisted of a linen sheath, pasted paper. In order to fill with hot air was diluted fire of finely chopped straw. And 3 months later, in the design of the aircraft was made the addition in the form of a special basket for passengers.
Modern balloons are undoubtedly more advanced, but almost the same pattern. For the manufacture of the spherical shell of the ball uses a special thin and durable polyester material. Changed the system of air heating. The function of fire performs adjustable propane gas burner mounted in the basket directly under the dome.
Despite the greater dependence on the wind, modern balloons are manageable. The altitude is regulated by the outlet at the top of the dome with explosive cord. For rate changes provided with a lateral valve. There are more complex designs where the inside of the main dome can accommodate one filled with helium.
How to control the balloon with a basket
The management of the balloon – occupation requiring extensive training and considerable financial costs. Suffice it to say that the course of the pilot balloon is today, about 200 thousand rubles. The price of the balloon (depending on model) commensurate with the price of the car.
The flight is preceded by thorough preparation. First of all it is necessary to examine the conditions – cloud, visibility and wind speed. In accordance with the received data, the planned route of flight. Due to unforeseen changes in weather conditions chosen to be a destination where the path has enough places for safe landings.
To the balloon took off, the necessary efforts of the entire crew. The best option places to start – smooth area 50 x 50 meters in the open field, where there are no foreign objects – telephone poles, trees, power lines.
Then starts the Assembly of the ball to the basket burners are mounted, which are connected by special hoses with gas cylinders. After a test run of the burner, the crew begins to stretch dome (always downwind). Further, the stretched dome special carbines fastened to the basket.
The next stage is the filling of the dome of cold air through the fan, then start the burner to heat the air. The heated air lifts the dome from the ground, and the carriage (with passengers) took its place. So the ball did not fly away, it first gets tied up to the car.
Despite the lack of a motor and wings, balloon control, which requires certain skills. Basic means of control – the burner and the exhaust valve. To set the height of the burner starts and the air is further heated, and for lowering, the valve is opened. Horizontal flight is due to tailwind. This is the skill of the pilot. So to go faster, he can increase altitude, where wind speed is stronger.
The landing site is selected in advance. It should be large and safe. Ideal – soccer field near road. On landing the crew reported by radio to the ground. Further, the pilot releases air from the dome relief valve. The ball is gently lowered to the ground.
- From the history of Aeronautics
- How to manage
- The rise
- The descent