The birth of this profession is connected with the beginning of the space age. In January 1960 was established the cosmonaut training Center (TSPK), and a year later, April 14, 2 days after the historic launch of Yuri Gagarin, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR established the title of “Pilot-cosmonaut”.
Whom take in cosmonauts
In the period of formation of the concept of manned flight the father of the Soviet space program Sergei Korolev is not without reason believed that the first astronauts should be military pilots. Not surprisingly, the first set of candidates in cosmonauts consisted of 20 fighter pilots.
Soon, however, S. P. Korolev became clear that the space required representatives of other professions – engineers, doctors, scientists. So in 1965 at his initiative when the CPC was formed by a detachment of civilian astronauts, consisting mainly of Royal engineers of OKB-1, involved in the creation of space technology.
Two years later, the intention to create your team said the leadership of the Institute of biomedical problems (IBMP). In 80-e years its population has reached 10 people, of which only two have been in space.
Since then, the concept of selection of candidates in cosmonauts has not practically changed. Cosmonauts-testers, (crew commander) – former air force pilots. The astronauts-engineers, usually graduates of prestigious technical Universities (MAI, MWe, Department of space research, Moscow state University, etc.), participated in the creation of space technology. Among the crew members may be cosmonauts-researchers, usually qualified doctors and biologists.
How to go to space
So, a man once takes an important decision: I want to become an astronaut. Where to start? To start is to read the General information. The major space employer in Russia – the Federal space Agency has four selection centers in Moscow, Yekaterinburg, Vladivostok and Khabarovsk. On the next set reported on the website of CTC. The last 17-th selection was completed in July of this year.
The astronauts are still “goods” piece. To the candidates, as before, are very strict. Selection takes place in several stages. In the beginning, the Commission met with a personal matter. Mandatory conditions: the presence of Russian citizenship, age under 35 years, higher education in engineering or aircrew specialty, the absence of crime.
Then the medical Board. Compared to the first set of requirements are less stringent due to the changing conditions of stay on Board the spacecraft: they have become much more comfortable and safe. However, certain standards should be met. The main one is in perfect health. The final stage tests on professional suitability.
Candidates who have successfully passed all stages of selection, are enrolled in the cosmonaut corps. Its full name Institute of cosmonaut training center named after Yuri Gagarin, located in the famous Star city near Moscow.
It takes to go to space
The General course lasts from 3 to 5 years, and then begins preparing for a specific expedition to the ISS. A very important feature: the new crew is formed in preparation, not in the queue, that is, flying the most prepared. Among those enlisted in the squad there are those who fly several times, but there are those who are waiting for his “finest” hour for many years.
How to become a Russian astronaut woman
Men’s space monopoly did not last long: in June 1963, flew in space the first woman – Valentina Tereshkova. However, it did not change the current practice and the space still fly mostly men, what is a simple explanation: the unearthly load they are easier.
The rest of the road to space for the Russians, regardless of gender, are about the same. So, Valentina Tereshkova, came to the cosmonaut detachment of the Aero club and after the flight ended Military-air Academy. N. Ye. Tatyana Savitskaya is a former graduate of the Moscow aviation Institute and test pilot. Space record holder Yelena Kondakova graduated from the Bauman, after which he worked at RSC Energia. The youngest – test-cosmonaut Elena Serova also graduated from MAI, and before enrolling in the cosmonaut worked for several years at MCC.
And in NASA?
The profession of an astronaut in the United States is very prestigious. During the last set at NASA, there were more than 18 thousand applications. As a result of fierce selection were only 12 people. By the way, the Russian space Agency has only received 400 applications.
Fundamental differences in the requirements for candidates to the astronauts (and cosmonauts) no: they must also have a good education – preferably a bachelor’s degree in mathematics, physics, biology, engineering disciplines one of the most prestigious American Universities. Required experience (minimum three years) with a degree and excellent health.
- Whom take in cosmonauts
- How to go to space
- It takes to go to space
- How to become an astronaut woman
- And in NASA?